The Federal Budget Process

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The Federal Budget Process 2 Days, 16 CLPs

Understand the process of how federal funds are planned for, authorized, appropriated, apportioned, allocated, and executed each year. Through examination of current events, you will learn the formulation, enactment, and execution phases of the federal budget process.

Who Takes This Course: This course is designed for government and private sector employees new to budgeting responsibilities or those not directly involved in federal budgeting who want an overview of the budget process.

Course Format: Lecture, group discussion, class exercises, and exam.

Learning Objectives

• Identify major legislation that impacts the federal budget process

• Track the budget timeline and the three major phases of the budget process

• Identify the roles of the major players in the budget process

• Outline how agencies use and track their allocated funds

• Explain how agency budgets are prepared and how they contribute to the President’s Budget

• List the types of audits used after the budget has been executed

• Quantify the size and scope of the present budget

• Identify trends in federal spending during the last 50 years

Course Topics

History of the Federal Budget Process

• The Budget Process Functions

• History of the Federal Budget Process

• Efforts to Reduce the Deficit

• Efforts to Increase Accountability

• Financial Accountability and Accounting

• Recent Developments

• Exercise: What Are the Federal Acts?

Budget of the United States: Facts, Figures, and Trends

• Revenues/Receipts

• Outlays/Expenditures

• Deficits, Surpluses, and Fiscal Sustainability

• Exercise: Facts, Figures, and Trends

Federal Budget Overview

• Budget Concepts and Terms

• How Do Agencies Get Their Funds?

• Budget Authority vs. Outlays

• Key Players in the Federal Budget Process

Budget Formulation Process

• Federal Budget Process

• President’s Budget

• Formulation of the President’s Budget

• Annual Performance Plan

• Step 1: Budget Policy Development

• Step 2: Preparation and Submission of Agency Budget Estimates

• Step 3: OMB Review and Presidential Decisions

• Exercise: Northern Energy Council

Congressional Action Process

• Congressional Action on the President’s Budget

• Concurrent Budget Resolution

• Authorizing Legislation

• Appropriations

• Authorizations vs. Appropriations

• Lapse in Appropriation

• Exercise: Congressional Action

Budget Execution

• Key Execution Activities

• Appropriation Warrant (FMS Form 6200)

• Appropriation Life Cycle

• Types of Classifications and Appropriations

• Availability of Budgetary Resources

• Internal Control

• Apportionment

• Allotment by Agency Headquarters and Suballotment

• Commitments and Obligations

• Developing the Operating Plan

• Monitoring an Operating Plan

• Revising an Operating Plan

• Budget Execution Flexibility

• Impoundment Actions

• Continuing Resolution

• Exercise: Budget Execution


• Why Audit?

• Preparing for an Audit

• Financial Audits

• Performance Audits

• Attestation Engagements

• After the Audit

• The Audit Finding

• Exercise: Audit Concepts

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